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                            Facts about a typical "Stick Built" House (built on site).

1. Gable Stud: A vertical beam placed at the gable as a supporting element.
2. Collar Beam: A horizontal beam fastened between rafters which are opposite each other, adding rigidity to the roof framing.   
3.  Ceiling Joist: A horizontally placed framing members at the ceiling of the top-most living space of a house that provides a
platform to which the finished ceiling material could be attached.
4.  Ridge Board: The horizontal member at the top of the roof where the rafters join.
5.  Insulation: A man-made or natural material that resists heat flow that is installed in a house's shell to keep the heat in a house in
the winter and the coolness in the house in the summer. The most common form of insulation is fiberglass, whether in batts or
blown-in material, along with cellulose, rigid foam boards and rock wool.  
6.  Chimney Cap: Concrete capping around the top of the chimney brick to protect the masonry work from the elements.  
7.  Chimney Flues: The space or channel in a chimney that carries off  smoke and other  gases to the outside.
8.   Chimney: A masonry or in some cases , a wood framed enclosure that surrounds and contains one or more flues and extends
above the roof line.
9.  Chimney Flashing: Sheet metal at the chimney/roof junction used to channel water to prevent water penetration.
10.  Rafters: One of a series of structural members of a roof designed to support roof loads. The rafters of a flat roof are
sometimes called roof joists.
11. Ridge: The board placed on edge at the top-most point of the roof framing, into which the upper ends of the rafters are joined
or attached.
12. Roof Boards: The boards on the outside of the rafters that help support the roofing material. Back to Top
13.  Stud: One of a series of slender wood or metal vertical structural members placed as supporting elements in walls and
partitions.
14. Eave Gutter: A trough at the bottom edge of a roof downslope that catches and carries away rainwater Back to Top
15. Roofing: The finished surface at the top of the house that must be able to withstand the effects of the elements,
(i.e) wind, rain, snow, hail, etc.). A wide variety of materials are available such as asphalt shingles, wood shakes, metal roofing,
ceramic and concrete tiles, and slate, with asphalt shingles making up the bulk of the material used. Learn more about roofing.
16. Blind or Shutter: Usually lightweight louvered or flush door-like frames located at each side of a window. Some shutters are
made to close over the window for protection; most are fastened to the wall as a decorative device.
17. Bevel Siding: Slightly angled board siding, usually comprised of wood material.
18.   Downspout Goose neck: Segmented section of downspout that is bent at a radius to allow the downspout to be attached to the
house and to follow the bends and curves of the eaves and ground.  
19. Downspout Strap: Strap used to secure the downspout to the side of the house.
20. Downspout Leader: The portion of the downspout that leads or extends to drain water away from the foundation.
21. Double Plate: Two pieces of lumber framing attached together typically used to carry a load across two bearing points.  
22. Entrance Canopy: A small overhanging roof that shelters the front entrance.
23. Garage Cornice: A projecting horizontal molding along the top of a wall or building.
24.  Fascia: A flat board, band, or face, usually used in combination with moldings, and often located at the outer face of the
cornice.
25. Garage Door Frame Vertical Exterior Plate.
26. Garage Door: The door for the vehicle passage into the garage area. Typical garage doors consist of multiple jointed panels of
wood, metal or fiberglass. Back to Top
27.   Downspout Shoe: The bottom downspout goose neck that directs the water from the downspout to the extension or splash
block at the grade. Back to Top
28. Sidewalk: A walkway that provides a direct, all-weather approach to an entry. The sidewalk can be constructed of poured
concrete, laid stone, concrete pavers, or gravel contained between borders or curbs or other materials.
29. Entrance Post: An upright pole at the entrance area serving as a support beam.
30. Entrance Platform: The exterior area immediately next to an entrance door.  
31. Stair Riser: The vertical boards that close the space between each stair tread on a set of stairs (see stair stringer and stair
tread).  
32. Stair Stringer: The supporting members in a set of stairs that are cut or notched to accept the individual treads and risers (see
stair riser and stair tread).  
33. 33. Girder Post: A large beam of wood or steel used to support concentrated loads, (such as joists), at isolated points along its
length.
34. Chair Rail: Decorative trim applied around the perimeter of a room such as a formal dining room or kitchen/breakfast nook at
the approximate same height as the back of a chair. It is sometimes used as a cap trim for wainscoting (see wainscoting).
35. Clean out Door: The access door to an ash pit below a fireplace opened when the ash pit needs to be cleaned.
36.   Furring Strips: Strips of wood or metal applied to a wall or other surface to make the surface even. Furring normally serves as
a fastening base for finish material. Back to Top
37. Corner Stud: The vertical beam placed at the corner of two walls, placed as a supporting element.  
38. Girder: A large beam of wood or steel used to support concentrated loads, (such as joists), at isolated points along its length.  
39. Gravel Fill: A bed of course gravel that is laid atop the existing soil prior to pouring the concrete slab. The gravel serves a dual
purpose of breaking surface tension on the concrete slab and providing a layer that interrupts capillary action of subsurface
moisture from reaching the concrete slab. Typically, a polyethylene sheeting will be installed between the gravel fill and the concrete
slab for further moisture proofing.
40. Concrete Floor: A hardened mixture of cement, aggregate and water. The cement portion is generally Portland cement which is
made by heating raw materials containing alumina and calcium. The aggregate is generally sand or gravel.
41. Foundation Footing: The base on which the foundation walls rests. The foundation is wider than the foundation wall in order to
spread out the load it is bearing and to help prevent settling.  
42. Paper Strip: Part of the French Drain System that protects the piping from entry of debris.
43.   Drain Tile: A tube or cylinder that is normally installed around the exterior perimeter of the foundation footings that collects
and directs ground water away from the foundation of the house. The tile can be individual sections of clay or asphalt tubing or, in
more recent construction, a perforated plastic drain-tile that is approximately 4 inches in diameter. The drain tile leads either
towards a sump or to an exterior discharge away from the house. Learn more about surface water control.
44. Diagonal Sub floor: An underlying layer of rough or unfinished material supporting a finished floor. Back to Top
45.   Foundation Wall: The supporting portion of a structure at the bottom of the structure. The foundation supports the building.  
46.   Sill Plate: The lowest member of the frame of a structure, resting on the foundation and supporting the floor joists or the
uprights of the wall (also sill plate or mud sill). Also, the member forming the lower side of an opening, as a door sill, window sill,
etc.  
47. Backfill: The material used to re-fill an excavation around the outside of a foundation wall or pipe trench.
48. Termite Shield: A shield, usually of non-corrodible metal, placed in or on a foundation wall or other mass of masonry or around
pipes to help prevent the passage of termites.
49. Window Well Wall: An excavation around a basement window that prevents the surrounding soils from collapsing into the
window. The window well surround is normally constructed of formed corrugated galvanized metal, built-up masonry, or pressure
treated wood. Learn more about windows.  
50. Grade Line: The level at which the ground meets a building.
51.   Basement Sash: The portion of a window that moves and/or contains the window pane.
52. Window Well: A metal or masonry frame outside of a basement window which keeps the earth away from the window yet
allows natural light to enter.
53. Corner Brace: Diagonal braces placed at the corners of framed walls to stiffen them and provide extra strength.
54. Corner Stud: The vertical beam placed at the corner of two walls, placed as a supporting element. Back to Top
55. Window Frame: The top and sides of the window, to include the wall framing as well as the actual window frame and trim.
56. Window Light: One section of glass in a window with multiple panes or lites.
57. Wall Studs: Vertical structural members within wall placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions.
58. Header: A beam over a door, window, or other opening.
59. Window Cripple: Short studs placed between the header and a top plate or between a sill and sole plate.
60. Wall Sheathing: The material used to cover the outside surface of the wall framing that provides lateral and shear support to the
wall as well as a nailing surface for the exterior siding.
61. Building Paper: Building material, usually a felt paper that is used as a protective barrier against air and moisture passage from
the area beneath the flooring as well as providing a movement/noise isolator in hardwood flooring.
62. Pilaster: A projection of the foundation wall used to support a floor girder or stiffen the wall.  
63. Rough Header: Stick built support over wall opening.
64. Window Stud: Vertical post that is one of the uprights supporting the wall near a window.
65. Cornice Moulding: A horizontal piece, usually molding, that tops a column, wall, etc.
66. Fascia Board: The visible flat front board that caps the rafter tail ends and encloses the overhang under the eave that runs along
the roof edge and at the edge of the roofing at the gables. The gutter is usually attached to this board at the eaves.
67. Window Casing: The finish trim details around the perimeter of the window on the interior finished wall. Back to Top
68. Lath: Framework of wire mesh used to support plaster work. Back to Top
69. Insulation: A man-made or natural material that resists heat flow that is installed in a house's shell to keep the heat in a house in
the winter and the coolness in the house in the summer. The most common form of insulation is fiberglass, whether in batts or
blown-in material, along with cellulose, rigid foam boards and rock wool.
Back to Top
70. Wainscoting: The wooden paneling of the lower part of an interior wall up to approximately waist-height or between 36 to 48
inches from the floor. Back to Top
71. Baseboard: Typically a wood trim board that is placed against the wall around the perimeter of a room next to the floor. The
intent is to conceal the joint between the floor and wall finish.
72. Building Paper: Building material, usually a felt paper that is used as a protective barrier against air and moisture passage from
the area beneath the flooring as well as providing a movement/noise isolator in hardwood flooring.
73. Finish Floor: The final floor covering inside the living space of a house. The most common types of finishes are carpeting,
hardwood flooring, ceramic or stone tile, parquet panels or vinyl sheet flooring.
74. Ash Dump: A door or opening in the firebox that leads directly to the ash pit, through which the ashes are swept after the fire is
burned out. All fireboxes are not equipped with an ash dump.
75. Door Trim-casing: The finish trim details around the perimeter of the door on the interior finished wall.
76. Fireplace hearth: The inner or outer floor of a fireplace usually made of brick, tile, or stone. Fireboxes that have more than 6
square feet should have hearth extensions that extend a minimum of 20” in front of the firebox and a minimum of 12” beyond each
side of the opening. Fireboxes that have less than 6 square feet have to be a minimum of 16” out and 8” on each side.
77. Floor Joists: The main sub-floor framing members that support the floor span. Joists are usually made of engineered wood I-
beams or 2x8 (or larger) lumber.
78. Stair Riser: The vertical boards that close the space between each stair tread on a set of stairs (see stair stringer and stair tread).
79. Fire Brick: Brick at a fireplace designed to withstand very high temperatures.
80. Newel Cap: A cap to protect the post supporting the handrail at a staircase.
81. Stair Tread: The horizontal board in a stairway that is walked upon (see stair riser and stair stringer).
82. Finish Stringer: Cut or notched wood trim to protect the wall at a stairway.
83. Stair Rail: A sturdy handhold and barrier that follows the outside, and sometimes inside, perimeter of the stairs. The stair rail is
used to prevent falls and to provide a means of additional support when walking up or down the stairs.
84.   Balusters: One of a series of small pillars that is attached to and runs between the stairs and the handrails. The spacing
between the balusters should be less than 4 inches to prevent small children from getting stuck between the balusters. Balusters are
considered a safety item and provide an
additional barrier.  
85. Plaster Arch: The decorative design of an arched doorway constructed with plaster.
86. Mantel: The ornamental or decorative facing around a fireplace including a shelf that is attached to the breast or backing wall
above the fireplace .
87. Floor Joists: The main sub-floor framing members that support the floor span. Joists are usually made of engineered wood I-
beams or 2" x 8' (or larger) lumber.
88. Bridging: Small pieces of wood or metal strapping placed in an X-pattern between the floor joists at mid-span to prevent the
joists from twisting and squeaking and to provide reinforcement and distribution of stress.
89. Lookout: A place or structure that affords a good view for observation.
90. Attic Space: The open space within the attic area.  
91. Metal Lath: A sheet of metal of wire mesh used to support plaster work.
92. Window Sash: The framework that holds the glass in a door or window.
93. Chimney Breast: A projecting section of an interior wall surrounding a chimney or fireplace.
94. Newel: The post at the top and bottom of the handrails and anywhere along the stair run that creates a directional change in the
handrails is called the newel post. The newel post is securely anchored into the underlying floor framing or the stair stringer to
provide stability to the handrails.
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